Invited Research Article Twenty years of NASA-EOS multi-sensor satellite...

Flower, V. J. B., and R. Kahn (2021), Invited Research Article Twenty years of NASA-EOS multi-sensor satellite observations at Kīlauea volcano (2000–2019), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 415, 107247, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2021.107247.

Recent eruptions of Kīlauea volcano, on the Island of Hawai'i, represent an ideal test location for studying volcanic plumes, due to its remote location and minimal anthropogenic pollution. Within this work we exploit the over 20-year data record from NASA EOS satellites to investigate the degree to which space-borne observations can detect shifts in known eruption dynamics at Kīlauea. Through the combined analysis of remotely sensed plume heights, plume particle microphysical properties, lava flow thermal tracking and high resolution SO2 mapping, we provide interpretations of the satellite signals in a volcanic context and link them to ground-based eruption reports for validation. We establish common patterns of plume dispersion and particle evolution and identify when significant shifts in activity occur. We also determine where ambient conditions influence the output retrieved from the space-borne sensors. By comparing the inferences derived from remote-sensing with the extensive record of suborbital observations at Kīlauea, we assess the strengths and limitations of the satellite-based volcanic assessment techniques. The work presented here highlights the capabilities of these techniques, allowing us to more confidently interpret volcanic activity observed from space globally, particularly in cases where ground observations are limited or entirely lacking.

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Research Program: 
Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP)
Earth Surface & Interior Program (ESI)
Terra- MISR
Aura- OMI
Funding Sources: 
Earth Surface & Interior Program, ACMAP, Terra Project, MISR Project