Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass...

Canagaratna, M. R., J. Jimenez-Palacios, J. H. Kroll, Q. Chen, S. H. Kessler, P. Massoli, L. H. Ruiz, E. Fortner, L. R. Williams, K. R. Wilson, J. D. Surratt, N. Donahue, J. T. Jayne, and D. Worsnop (2015), Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 253-272, doi:10.5194/acp-15-253-2015.

Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygento-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OSC ) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios (referred to here as “Aiken-Explicit”), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20 % (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12 %, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2 O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as “Aiken-Ambient”), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14 % of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2 O+ , CO+ , and CO+ 2 fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2 O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS–vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 ◦ C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 ◦ C. These results are used together to develop an “Improved-Ambient” elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion fragments as markers to correct for molecular functionality-dependent systematic biases and reproduces known O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28 % (13 %) of the known molecular values. The error in Improved-Ambient O : C (H : C) values is smaller for theoretical standard mixtures of the oxidized organic standards, which are more representative of the complex mix of species present in ambient

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Tropospheric Composition Program (TCP)